Discussion About Renal Stone Or Kidney Stone

Renal stone or kidney stone urolithiasis

Hello, guys, we are going to discuss kidney stone today. I have full faith that anyone who reads this article will find answers to all the questions in this article.

kideny stone
kideny stone

What is Renal stone?


What is Kidney stone?

Our body has 2 kidneys, which cleanses the blood and makes urine from it. This system is called an emission mechanism.

It happens in 2 parts.

1 upper urinary system

Kidney, ureter,

2 lower urinary system


Kidney made by naphronrs, Napron like filtration pipe, The pipe is block by some foreign particle they produce stenosis

They called as renal stone

The kidney stone is found in 50% of the people. This is due to changes in food The main cause of this is also the lack of water in the body

We are going to discuss this topic in detail today. It is easy to understand if any topic is understood in points.

1 Type of stone and its causes

2 risk factor

3. Sign symptom


5 pathophysiology

6 management

1 type of stone

A.Calcium oxalate stone

  • Cause by supersaturation of calcium and oxalate
  • most common stone
  • avoid acid diet
  • stones structure or acidic
  • Avoid calcium diet , oxalic acid
  • dark brown in colour
  • Radio-Opaque in x-ray

B.Calcium phosphate stone

  • avoid alkaline diet
  • Dirty white colour
  • Radio-Opaque in x-ray

C. Struvite stone /infectious stone/ triple phosphate stone PPP

  • Cause by Supersaturation of ammonia, magnesium and phosphate in urine
  • dirty white in colour
  • radio Opaque in X-Ray
  • avoid alkaline diet

D. Uric acid stone

  • Cause ammonia acid
  • red-brown in stone
  • Radiolucent
  • Avoid non-veg diet ->acidic
  • Avoid purine diet
  • Accumulation Of uric acid Make gaut arthritis

Doc – allopurinol

E. Cysteine stone

  • Due to supersaturation of cysteine amino acid
  • Yellow or light pink colour
  • radio Opaque in X-Ray
  • avoid cystine/acidic diet

F. Xanthin stone

  • Metabolic product of purine(bio)
  •  Supersaturation of xanthin
  • Radio opaque
  • Red brown colour
  • Avoid Purine diet

2 Risk factors

  • Fluid imblance
  • High calcium diet
  • Fastfood
  • Seedsvagitavle Genetic

3 Sign synonyms

  • lower back pain
  • Acute flank pain
  • Radiating pain

i. renal colic Initate from lumber region (flank back) And radiate to testecular area and bladder in female

ii. uro colic Initiate from flank (back) Radiate to grain in male Thigh in female Anv Urinary urgency and friquancy Hemeturia/ crital uria

4. Diagnosis /investigation

  • USG
  • RFT
  • X-ray
  • LVP

Intravenous pyelography

5 Pathophysiology

Kidney Stone

6 Management

Acute mgt

  • Analgesic Anti spasmodic In Pain
  • hyosine ,Dicyclomine, Termadole
  • Antiemetic-Ondasertone
  • Proton pump inhibitor

Medical Mgt.


reduce pain

Anti emetic

Poticium citrat- reduce stone

Alfa adrenargic blocker Its Muscle relxent To pass the Kidney Stone

If stone is <5mm its is asymptomatic

Mgt is flusing by water Mgt is flusing by water

If stage is >5mm


Non incisional

Cystoscopy, ECS wl Incisional, Percutanious


Nephrotomy, Nephoro lithotomy (pylo lithotomy), Nepro lithotripsy, Endoscopy open procedure nephrotomy