How Female Reproductive System Works

Female Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System functions

  • The system which related with organ of coitus act- Sexual intercourse(vagina)
  • Formation of ovum- ovum formation by ovary
  • Fertilization -(fallopian tube) fertilization in ampulla part of fallopian tube
  • Implantation xidation- zygote in uterus attach with endometrium
  • Zygote(sperm + ovum)first diploid cell
  • Growth and development -uterus expansion of product -vagina
Female reproductive system
Female reproductive system

Female reproductive system divided into two parts external genital organ (vulva) and internal genital organs

External genital organ (vulva)  Internal genital organ
  1. Mons pubis
  2. labia majora
  3. labia minora
  4. clitoris
  5. vestibule
  6. perineum
  1. Vagina
  2. uterus
  3. fallopian tube
  4. ovary


Internal genital organs (IGO)

female reproductive system
female reproductive system

1# Vagina

  • Made by fibromuscular tissue
  • Stratified squamous epithelial cell
  • Communication channel  – Vulva to uterus

Length of vagina

Anterior-7 cm

Posterior-9 cm

  • In standing position vaginal create horizontal angle 45°
  • pH- acidic
  • pH of vagina – 3.8 to 4.5 during reproductive age( 30 year )15-45 year reproductive age= Menarche(first menstrual cycle) To Menopause( End menstrual cycle)
  • Before puberty and after Menopause the pH of vagina is neutral or alkaline.
  • Acidic pH of vagina by lactobacillus lactobacilli normal Flora of vagina

(lactobacilli does not affect where it lives)

Function of vagina

  • organ of coitus act
  • expansion of  fetus
  • excretion of waste products (menstrual blood)


2 Uterus

uterus / hystero / metra

Female Reproductive System


Metritis-inflammation in uterus

Hysterectomy- remove uterus


  • Hollow muscular organ
  • non-pregnant uterus shape piriform shape of uterus
  • this is pelvic organ

L x W x T = 7.5-8cm × 5cm ×1.25-2.5cm

During pregnancy uterus length size 5 time increase 35-40cm

Weight– 50 to 80 gram

average 60 gram

in pregnancy weight of uterus -1 kg (900 to 1000gm)

Position of uterus

Anti vertex 90° uterus with vagina

Anti flexon 120° the uterus with myself

Perineum skin pouch

vesicouterine pouch -pouch between bladder and uterus

rectouterine pouch- between rectum and uterus( pouch of Douglas )(cul De sac)

culdocentesis- aspiration of fluid> pouch of Douglas > for diagnosis ectopic pregnancy

3 layers of the uterus

Parametrium, myometrium, endometrium

1.Parametrium– outer layer of the uterus

2.Myometrium -middle muscular layer of uterus

Three sublayers in myometrium

A.outer  myometrium

B.middle myometrium

  • In this muscle present figure of 8 muscles fibre this muscle fibre looking like numerical 8 word
  • It is known as living ligature of uterus
  • Uterus artery passes through the figure of 8 muscles fibre
  • Oxytocin contact the muscle fibre>> contraction of uterine artery>> bleeding stopped>>pph decrease

C. Inner myometrium


  • inner layer of uterus
  • endometrium layer in pregnancy called as decidua (sedoff)
  • decidua sedout after delivery


Three part of Uterus

  1. Corpus/body/cornua = fundus+body cavity
  2. Isthmus
  3. Cervix

1 Fundus most upper part 1.5 cm length

body cavity body self upper part of uterus 3.5 cm – 4 cm

2 Isthmus 0.5 cm

the smallest part of uterus

3 cervix

length 2.5 to 3 cm

Opening- >> internal OS >>external OS

2 part  of cervix

1 endocervix

  • Supravaginal part
  • space between vaginal part and ectocervix


2 ectocervix

  • Vaginal part of cervix
  • Space between vaginal part of cervix( ectocervix )and vaginal wall space call as fornix

Total number of fornix

  • right lateral and left lateral fornix
  • anterior and posterior fornix

Osiander sign -check by lateral fornix

Neck of uterus -cervix

female reproductive system
female reproductive system

3 Fallopian tube

oviduct /uterine tube/ slapinges/ Mullerian duct

Terms –

Salpingitis- inflammation in fallopian tube

Salpingectomy -removal of fallopian tube

Salpingeoscopy – visualisation of fallopian tube


Length of fallopian tube the 10 centimeter ( 4 inches )

4 part of fallopian tube

1 interstitial part

intramural part 1.25 cm (.5inch)

smallest part

2 Isthmus 2.5 cm(1inch)

3 ampulla tortous part of fallopian tube 5 cm (2 inch) fertilization place ampulla( largest part)

 4 infundibulum 1.25 cm

finger like projection at the end of infundibulum >>number 25 to 30

known as fimbrie

Largest fimbrie>>Upto the level of overy

This fimbrie catch the ovem through into fallopian tube

4 Ovary

female gamut

primary function- release of ovum

secondary function- release of hormone oestrogen and progesterone

After ovulation- Corpus luteum>> hormone secretion

measurement of ovary

L×W×T 3×2×1cm

weight of ovary

0.14 – 0. 30 ounce

1 ounce = 28.35gm=30ml

External genital organ ( vulva )

female reproductive system
female reproductive system
  • anteriorly -mums pubis
  • lateraly- labia majora
  • posteriorly -perineum

Part of external genital organ

1 Mums pubis– post anterior part of vulva

Subcutaneous tissue pad

Pubic hair (pubarchae)

2 labia majora / outer lip

Thicker elevated fold of skin

Labia majora, homologos with scrotum in male {scrotum temperature 95 to 96 degree Fahrenheit or 35 degree celsius}

{Homologus mean-“structure same,functions different”}

3 labia minora

This elevated fold of skin

Inner layer

4 clitoris

Erectile tissue body


richly supplied with nerves

homologos with glass penis in male

5 Vestibules

Triangular space

Bounded anteriorly by clitoris

Lateraly by minora

posteriorly -fourchette

4 opening

1 Urethral opening

2 vaginal opening -covered by hymen ( absent in sport women athletes and after coitus act) semipermeable incompletely layer the vaginal opening

3 bartholin duct

opening the bartholin> duct carry the secretion of bartholin gland >alkaline secretion

secretion increase during sexual excitement

lubrication of vagina for avoid friction

4 Skenis galnd

Function similar to bartholin gland

Homologos with prostate of male


  • Anatomical perineum
  • obstetrical perineum

Perinial body -Space between vagina and rectom

  • Anteriorly -symphysis pubis (4cm length)
  • laterally -ischial tuberosity
  • posteriorly- coccyx

Produce gamut

testis and ovary both are analogous

Analogus mean – function same and structure different

Primary sex organ

Only in gamut :-

  • Ovary in female
  • Testis in male

secondary/ accessory sex organ

  • Vagina
  • Utrus
  • Fallopian tube
  • Vulva
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Female Seproductive System
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