- Dilated hemorrhoid veins (superior rectal vein) due to engorgement with blood (varicosed vein).
- I may be internal (occurring above the internal sphincter) or external (occurring outside of the external sphincter).
Risk factor of Hemorrhoids
- Chronic straining at defection due to prolonged constipation.
- Prolonged standing, sitting, heavy lifting and pregnancy.
- Portal hypertension and increase abdominal pressure.
CM of Hemorrhoid
Hematochezia (the passage of bright red blood in the stool) and rectal bleeding.
Rectal pruritus, pain and prolapse.
- Rectal examination.
- Sigmoidoscopy & proctoscopy (inspection of the rectum with a proctoscope).
- High fiber and fluid intake to prevent constipation.
- Apply pads socked with anti-inflammatory agents (e-g hydrocortisone)astringent and anesthetics (e-g.
- benzocaine) to shrink the mucous membrane.
- For internal hemorrhoids nonsurgical approach like rubber band and ligstion (rubber band around hemorrhoids constrict circulation, and the tissue become necrotic, separates and sloughs off), infrared coagulation
- cryotherapy (rapid freezing of the hemorrhoids).and laser treatment can be used.
- Advise to avoid prolonged sitting, standing and constipation.
- Advise for sitz bath 2-3 times per day for 7-10 days.
- Surgery – Hemorrhoidectomy (resection of hemorrhoids).
- Provide pone or de- lying position after surgery to prevent bleeding.
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